The Caldera And Caldera Sites: Late Intermediate Period Occupations In The Huaura Valley, Peru
In this dissertation I investigate the Huaura Valley sites of Caldera and El Carmen with the goal of increasing understanding of the Late Intermediate Period occupations in the valley. Though previous style based dating led researchers to assign the sites to the Middle Horizon, this study provides a new perspective on these sites as a result of a suite of AMS dates from excavated contexts that date the occupation to the Late Intermediate Period. The AMS dates from this study necessitate a revised interpretation of these sites and their relationship to other Late Intermediate Period settlements within and beyond the Huaura Valley. In the context of current and ongoing research at the fortified Late Intermediate Period occupations at Acaray and Cerro Colorado in the Huaura Valley as well as recently published evidence of defensive architecture in the area of El Carmen, these investigations help clarify understanding of interregional interaction and the effects of conflict on regional settlement patterns and societies and suggest a reassessment of the Late Intermediate Period in the Huaura Valley is in order. The pottery from Caldera and El Carmen exhibits a unique suite of characteristics that make the study of the material exciting but difficult given the general lack of secure dates on similar pottery from other sites in the valley. In addition to considering the occupants of Caldera and El Carmen in relation to their local peers within the valley and in the Chancay Valley just to the south, this research provides a chance to explore interactions between the Yschma to the south and Casma and Chimú to the north.