Drug Delivery And Homing Function Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Hiv Therapy
Human Immunodeficiency Virus -1 infects CD4+ cells, and the subsequent loss of these cells cause Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is crucial to control viremia in the clinical management of AIDS/HIV infection; however, drug regimens are complex, expensive, and require life-long intervention with potential side effects. Current conventional anti-HIV drugs target different phases of the HIV life cycle and can be categorized as nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), protease inhibitors, entry inhibitors (co-receptor antagonists and fusion inhibitors), and integrase inhibitors(II). Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon, or T-20) is the first fusion inhibitor approved by the FDA and has substantial side effects and drug delivery issues with most patients developing some local injection site reaction. The subcutaneous application of enfuvirtide and its short half-life, which requires twice daily administration, has disadvantages in patients who are already burdened by complex oral therapy. To overcome these drug issues, we propose an alternative method to administer the HIV-1 peptide fusion inhibitor C46. Stem cells can be a vehicle for delivering genes to specific tissues in the body and their therapeutic delivery systems are extensively used in cancer research. For many years, restoration of blood and immune system function has been used as a component in the care of cancer patients who have been treated with chemotherapeutic agents. Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated as a delivery vehicle for gene therapy applications based on their ability to engraft and home to inflamed tissues. MSCs are multi-potent and have immunological function in several human diseases. To investigate MSCs immune suppressive ability in HIV infection system, we will evaluate the crosstalk between MSCs and HIV infection immune-modulatory network.