Unless substantial reductions in greenhouse gas emissions are made, global warming will continue along with significant transformations to the earth’s systems. This augments the risk of extreme, widespread and irreversible consequences for people and the natural world. Over the past twenty years, many governments have implemented policies to lower carbon outputs. Unfortunately, though, others remain hesitant to introduce such legislation. This is largely due to uncertainties surrounding the magnitude and distribution of the economic damages primed by climate change. Throughout this thesis, I will analyze the political and economic determinants which explain why certain countries adopt effective mitigation laws whereas others do not. Understanding this will be crucial for scholars and policymakers in developing strategies for nations to reduce their emissions as efficiently and inexpensively as possible.