Tulane University Theses and Dissertations Archive

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"... Till the visionary became a part of the fictitious ...": Feminine discourse in Virginia Woolf's final decade
From the years 1930-1941, the work of Virginia Woolf reveals a 'writing I' deeply involved in a crucial philosophical issue--the engagement of the self with its others in the construction of identity, hardly a new quest. Yet Woolf was a woman, working in her texts to disrupt the masculine image of woman and to dismantle the primacy of male ego. Thus, what Woolf would uncover as she caught her stride in her most mature years was a feminine identity in her texts which seeks to bond with other voices, other lives, and which finds its form in feminine language What Woolf marks most clearly during her last eleven years is the other side of a feminine rite of passage; by 1930, having written To The Lighthouse, Woolf had witnessed and transcended the death of her mother in her texts. Once she had cleared from her writing her obsessive need to resurrect her long-dead mother, Woolf was free to reconstruct in that space a model of feminine discourse based on woman as artist, mystic, writer, in a word, active. Woolf thus confronted and revised within the field of her writing the discourses of patriarchy as she searched for the place, language, and history of women in her late texts, and she anticipated the work of current feminist and postmodern theorists regarding the slipping away of meaning and being through the sieve of language. Her practice combines forms and emerges as a blurring of genres into autobiography, her major vehicle for meaning and perhaps the most suitable form for women's writing. The work of her last decade most fruitful for such a reading includes the memoir, 'A Sketch of the Past,' Roger Fry: A Biography, The Waves, The Years, Between the Acts, and Three Guineas. These texts demonstrate that in finding a feminine voice, Woolf also found the communal voice combining the self and others--narrative itself, to remake in her visionary texts, acase@tulane.edu
The 129 inbred mouse strain is protected from the fibroproliferative effects of inhaled asbestos fibers: Evidence from in vivo and in vitro studies
Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) affects millions of individuals worldwide. Common features of this pathology are varying degrees of acute and chronic inflammation, stiffening of the lung over time and shortness of breath due to impairment of gas exchange resulting from excess deposition of scar tissue. We and others have identified a group of potent polypeptide intracellular messengers, known as growth factors, which are likely to be mediators of the fibroproliferative process in the lung consequent to asbestos inhalation. Thus, we focus on the hypothesis that peptide growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secreted by responding macrophages and epithelial cells are key mediators of the fibroproliferative response. We use a mouse model of IPF in order to investigate the early stages of this disease because most of the pathognomonic histopathologic changes occur within 48 hours of even a brief asbestos exposure. I demonstrate here that compared to C57BL/6 mice, the 129 mouse strain exhibits (1) reduced cell proliferation and growth factor expression at sites of fiber deposition in vivo and (2) failure to develop fibrogenic lesions at these same sites in the lung. I further demonstrate that (3) primary mouse lung fibroblasts (MLFs) isolated from 129 mice exhibit reduced proliferative capacity in vitro in both serum and in serum free defined media containing PDGF when compared to primary MLFs from C57BL/6 mice and (4) that the MLFs isolated from the 129 inbred strain exhibit a reduced responsiveness to factors which upregulate expression of mRNA for procollagen. These findings support the postulate that these peptide growth factors contribute to fibroproliferative lung disease consequent to injury, acase@tulane.edu
The 1781 uprising in Oruro, upper Peru: An exercise in collective compensatory illusion
This thesis reevaluates the prevailing interpretation of the Oruro rebellion of 1781. The uprising is usually portrayed as a Creole-Indian undertaking, and is often offered as evidence of the possibilities of such collaboration in effecting social change. The Oruro rebellion in fact consisted of two largely distinct uprisings--Creole/Mestizo and Indian--each with their own origins, dynamics and antithetical visions of the future While the Creoles and their Mestizo supporters sought to replace the Spanish and give a limited degree of additional liberty to the native peoples, the Indians believed they were presiding over a divinely-assisted and long-prophesied cataclysm which would restore native rule and pre-hispanic ways The Oruro rebellion also demonstrates the often unrecognized fact that the Quechua-speaking Tupac Amaru had enthusiastic and explicit, if nominal, support in Aymara regions as the long-awaited hero-savior come to liberate the Indians. While this highlights the decentralized nature of the regional uprising, it also reflects the widespread eschatological expectations in the region. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.), acase@tulane.edu
The 2010 Earthquake And Media In Haiti: Journalistic Transformations, Democracy And The Politics Of Disaster.
This dissertation explains the role that Haiti's leading mainstream and alternative news outlets have played in the aftermath of the 2010 earthquake that devastated the island nation of Haiti. The role of the media as a civic institution that acts on behalf of and in alliance with civil society in times of crisis is the central theme of this dissertation. Prior research has demonstrated that Haiti's media has been at the heart of such a role in civic society throughout the country's two hundred plus years of independent existence. This dissertation argues that this media tradition has been revitalized, strengthened and put to the test by the current crisis the country faces in physical reconstruction from natural disaster, political reconstruction from fragile early attempts at democracy, and social reconstruction from decades of economic stagnation that have exacerbated poverty and living conditions of the average Haitian. This project uses a mixed methodological approach of qualitative methods and basic quantitative methods to analyze how Haitian journalists have covered the aftermath of the disaster. This research addressed three key elements: (1) the impact of the disaster on the fractions that existed within the leading news media outlets during the nation's ongoing experiment with democracy (2) the impact of the disaster on how journalists view and practice their profession (3) the impact of the disaster on the quality of news being produced in Haiti. Findings indicate that there was an initial solidarity reborn among key Haitian news outlets that has sustained itself four years into the crisis. The solidarity born out of this most recent crisis has resulted in changes in how journalists approach their civic duty, despite commercial strains, and how they cooperate through sharing of news content and resources. These changes are seen across all media platforms. Additionally, Haitian media outlets have taken joint stances on developments in the country since the 2010 disaster that has resulted in news content that is more critical of those who hold power, and more concerned with advocacy on behalf of the Haitian people in general. At a time when the Haitian people are searching for a path forward, Haiti's media is providing a powerful platform to debate the course of the country's future., acase@tulane.edu
"A calculated withdrawal": postmodern american novelists, their politics, and the cold war
acase@tulane.edu, This dissertation identifies and analyzes the politics of three postmodern authors (Vladimir Nabokov, Thomas Pynchon, and Don DeLillo) by focusing mainly on their novels that are set during the Cold War. I argue that these authors’ writings, which are often read as apolitical or as cultural critiques, engage with historical and political Cold War issues, like totalitarianism, liberal anticommunism, the threat of nuclear apocalypse, and the expanded role of government agencies. Moreover, I show that although these authors cover similar political topics and often work in similar genres, like the spy thriller, their political orientations vary. What unites their disparate political views is that all three authors endorse individual liberty during the Cold War, and all provide narratives in which their protagonists withdraw from society. The overall implication, then, is that the individual can no longer affect political outcomes in an age of extreme ideologies, overwhelming technology, and seemingly allpowerful governmental agencies. My first chapter examines the politics of Vladimir Nabokov, and by using theorists, like Dominick LaCapra and Cathy Caruth, I argue that Nabokov’s postmodern novels (Bend Sinister, Pnin, and Pale Fire) explore the impact of trauma and reveal the author to be a staunch liberal anticommunist. My second chapter deals with the politics of Thomas Pynchon, and by employing theorists like Fredric Jameson, Michel de Certeau, and Michel Foucault, I argue that Pynchon’s anarchistic leanings in V. and The Crying of Lot 49 give way to a clearer anarchist outlook in “A Journey into the Mind of Watts”—that is, until Gravity’s Rainbow reflects his political despair. My third chapter examines Don DeLillo’s early novels (Americana, End Zone, Players, Running Dog) as well as his more ambitious historical works (The Names, Libra, Mao II, and Underworld), and by using theorists like Linda Hutcheon, Foucault, and Guy Debord, I argue that DeLillo’s politics reflect a type of left-leaning libertarianism. Ultimately, this dissertation serves as a corrective not only to these authors’ statements about the supposed apolitical nature of their work, but it also identifies their political philosophies, which are placed within the larger historical context of the Cold War., 1, Jason P. Markell
"A certain innate taste for virtue": The paragon reader and the eighteenth-century British sentimental novel
One of the most important literary conventions of the eighteenth century was the perception of a reading audience endowed with differing capacities to apprehend virtue. This hierarchy included reprobates as well as readers who needed only to reinforce a partially intact moral sense. Additionally, writers posited readers whose sensibilities already were completely perfected. Writers of sentimental novels often adopted techniques such as fragmented narratives to cater to this myriad of readers. Consequently, narrative hiatus, which often is seen merely as an attempt to represent emotion, became commonplace. An alternative interpretation is that narrative interruption was used to cater to the needs of the superior members of the reading hierarchy, who, it was believed, would welcome the abrogation of narrative in favor of the consideration of virtue it occasioned. By creating a subtext in Clarissa and Sir Charles Grandison, Samuel Richardson began a tradition using interruption of the narrative as a means of catering to superior readers. Subsequent novelists, having inherited from Richardson the supposition that the perfected reader should be taken into account, also attempted to manipulate their narratives, but their inept attempts to copy Richardson's techniques produced increasingly fragmented novels. These works remain important because they demonstrate the extent to which authors tried to cater to their superior readers. Henry Brooke's The Fool of Quality, which included inset stories designed to sway the minds of inferior readers, depended on a fragmented structure that allowed the discerning reader to abandon interest in the narrative's progress in favor of exploring a religious ecstasy. Similarly, Henry Mackenzie, using a secular agenda in The Man of Feeling, also attempted to abrogate his narrative. Eventually, the convention of the fragmented text was dismantled when Jane Austen concentrated on creating perfected fictional figures instead of attempting to cater to all members of the reading hierarchy. Consequently, Persuasion represents an important transition from the eighteenth-century authors' attempts to create text for the paragon reader and a step toward the nineteenth-century's fascination with the isolated, solipsistic experience of fictional figures who possessed a fully discerning sensibility, acase@tulane.edu
"A man of imagination" self-justification in Henry James's autobiographical prose, 1907-1914
F. O. Matthiessen argues that The Golden Bowl closes the 'final and major phase' of the career of Henry James and that in his last years he was 'distracted from his proper work,' fiction. Matthiessen's argument seems to have contributed to a critical neglect of some of the post-1904 prose: The American Scene, the Prefaces to The Novels and Tales of Henry James, A Small Boy and Others, and Notes of a Son and Brother. A close reading of these texts reveals that however various in genre, they are thematically similar as James recalls his past. They should be read, therefore, as forming the final period, an autobiographical phase Theories about the autobiographical impulse suggest that in these works James seeks to justify himself. In each text's central metaphor--restless analyst, artist, 'man of imagination'--one can see both a moral motivation (service to the community) and a psychological one (fulfillment of innate potentiality). At the heart of the self-justification lies his belief in his imagination and consciousness. Because this effort in self-justification also extends and refines James's concept of consciousness, these volumes should not be viewed as if he were 'distracted from his proper work.' Instead these texts evidence the distinctive Jamesian interest in the 'sensitive register' and are intricately related to the rest of his work, acase@tulane.edu
"A will of her own": Sarah Towles Reed and the pursuit of democracy in Southern public education
This dissertation examines the public life of Sarah Towles Reed, a teacher in the Orleans Parish public schools from 1910 to 1951. Reed was a founding member of the New Orleans Public School Teachers Association and the New Orleans Classroom Teachers' Federation, Local 353, of the American Federation of Teachers, AFL Reed's major accomplishments included securing equal pay for women teachers, the employment of married women in the public school system, teacher tenure and sabbaticals. Twice during her career she publicly defended teachers' academic freedom, risking her job and reputation for a cause that was central to her political philosophy In taking an active role in public life, Reed helped to redefine public behavior for southern women as she defied the strictures of ladyhood, speaking her mind and defending her rights in the male world of school administration and politics. Reed's commitment to progressive educational pedagogy and her belief in democratic education frequently brought her into conflict with school authorities and conservative elements in the New Orleans community. Nevertheless, she continued to adhere to the teachings of John Dewey and other progressive educators Like many liberals of her generation, Reed was less effective in dealing with racial issues than with other educational and political concerns. Although she helped organize the first black teachers' union in New Orleans and worked closely with African-American colleagues during the 1930s and 1940s, she was unable fully to support federally mandated school desegregation. When the national AFT required its locals to integrate following the Brown v. Board of Education decision, 353 voted to maintain its segregated membership. Reed requested an extension of the AFT deadline in an attempt to preserve her union, but the national refused and revoked the local's charter Reed's life and work illuminate some of the most significant struggles of the twentieth century: women's rights, academic freedom, and racial justice. Her successes as well as her failures shed light on how southerners engaged these concerns on a local level, and her life presents a revealing case study of the strengths and weaknesses of liberalism in the twentieth-century South, acase@tulane.edu
Ability of adult human stem / progenitor cells from bone marrow to traffick to damaged tissue: A unique multistep paradigm
We investigated integrin expression of marrow stromal cells (MSCs) and found subconfluent MSCs expressed integrin subunits beta1-3, 5, alpha1-9, 11, V, X, and D. We tested the hypothesis that MSCs use specific integrins to adhere to endothelial cells (ECs) from the pulmonary artery (HPAEC), cardiac-derived microvasculature (HMVEC-C), and umbilical venular (HUVEC) and found in experiments with blocking antibodies to beta integrins, anti-beta5 reduced MSC adhesion to all ECs, anti-beta1 to both HUVEC and HPAEC, anti-beta3 to HUVEC, and anti-beta2 to HMVEC-C. With blocking antibodies to alpha integrins, anti-alphaX reduced adhesion to HPAEC and HMVEC-C, anti-alphaV to HPAEC, and both anti-alpha7 and anti-alphaD to HMVEC-C indicating MSCs use distinct integrins to adhere to EC from different blood vessels We tested the hypothesis that MSCs use distinct adhesion molecules for adhesion and diapedesis under hemodynamic shear conditions. Using the chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryos, MSCs were shown to adhere to ECs from arterial vessels through PSGL and VLA-4 interactions. Using a transwell-based flow assay, MSCs that were tightly adhered to ECs were unable to crawl to endothelial junctions or extravasate through the endothelial layer. MSCs expressed 3 of the 12 molecules responsible for crawling and diapedesis. MSCs expressed VLA-4, Jam-A, and Lamp-3, but not JAM-B, JAM-C, PECAM, E-Cadherin, LFA-1, Mac1, alphaIIbeta7, or LPAM. These findings provide evidence that MSCs have a poor ability to undergo diapedesis under shear flow, which may be the reason for reported low engraftment levels achieved by infused MSCs in cell-based therapies. We tested the hypothesis that MSCs use a proteolytic mechanism to invade through extracellular matrix (ECM). MSCs were shown to be able to invade through ECM in a transwell system to VEGF, GM-CSF, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and SDF-1, but invasion was most robust towards Complete Culture Medium. Robust invasion was not measurable in either a three-dimensional gel or a chick embryo. MSCs invasion was reduced by inhibitors to aspartyl, serine, and MMP but not cysteine proteases suggesting MSC invasion is mediated by multiple protease The characterization of MSC homing and engraftment will contribute to the therapeutic use of MSCs, acase@tulane.edu
Abrogation of TGF-beta1-induced fibroblast-myofibroblast differentiation by histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease with no known effective pharmacologic therapy. The fibroblastic foci of IPF contain activated myofibroblasts which are the major producers of type I collagen. TGF-beta1 promotes differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts in vitro and in vivo. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between TGF-beta1-mediated myofibroblast differentiation and HDAC activity. Treatment of normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs) with the pan-HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibited TGF-beta1-mediated alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and alpha--1 Type I collagen mRNA induction. TSA also blocked the TGF-beta1 driven contractile response in NHLFs. The inhibition of alpha-SMA expression by TSA was associated with reduced phosphorylation of Akt, and a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt blocked TGF-beta1-mediated alpha-SMA induction in a dose dependent manner. HDAC4 knock down was effective in inhibiting TGF-beta1 stimulated alpha-SMA expression as well as the phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover, the inhibitors of protein phosphotase 2A and 1 (PP2A and PP1) rescued TGF-beta1-mediated alpha-SMA induction from the inhibitory effect of TSA. We also observed that TGF-beta1 stimulates NOX4 mRNA and protein expression, and a subsequent increase in intracellular ROS in normal human lung fibroblasts, as well as, the export of HDAC4 from the nucleus, an event that is mediated by oxidation of HDAC4 disulfide bonds. The NOX family inhibitor, DPI, inhibited TGF-beta1 stimulated HDAC4-GFP cytoplasm translocation. In addressing the clinical relevance of our in vitro findings, lung tissue from IPF patients demonstrate higher NOX4 expression than that of COPD controls. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results showed that lung alveolar epithelial cells have strong nuclear HDAC4 expression, whereas HDAC4 nuclear staining was absent in myofibroblasts. Taken together, these data demonstrate that TGF-beta1 stimulated NHLF to myofibroblast differentiation is HDAC4 dependent and requires phosphorylation of Akt. Moreover TGF-beta1 induces NOX4 to generate ROS, which in turn mediates myofibroblast differentiation at least in part through facilitating the translocation of HDAC4 into the cytoplasm, acase@tulane.edu
Abstract interpretation of multiple views in software design
The main contribution of this thesis is the definition of an abstract interpretation framework theoretical basis to support the analysis of multiple views of a system captured by several graphical designs or 'views' using different notations. First, a formal representation is defined to formalize a Data Flow Design (DFD) and a Structure Chart Design as the selected notations to capture two different views of a system. Second, formalized views are subjected to an independent and a multiple view analysis. The independent analysis verifies the validity of a design by a global consistency analysis (cycle detection) a structural consistency analysis (DFD balancing rule verification), and a completeness analysis (undefined entities identification). Once the validity of a design is guaranteed, a multiple view analysis follows. The multiple view analysis adopts the abstract interpretation framework to construct an abstract design for each view, to make the necessary mappings between abstract designs, and to support the comparison process between them. The types of discrepancies detected are inconsistency (preservation of decomposition process and input/output relations), missing information (omission of design components), and incompatible information (identification of contradictory information) This work is characterized as the first research efforts to improve the design process by applying an abstract interpretation framework to support the analysis of multiple views at the design stage. The definition of the formalism used in view formalization and support of the analysis process, as well as the definitions added to the abstract interpretation framework to handle multiple design notations are developed as a means to achieve our main goal, acase@tulane.edu
An abstract operational model for a functional-logic programming language
All programming languages, even declarative languages, must be executed on Von Neumann architecture machines. Therefore, a declarative language needs an operational model, close enough to typical Von Neumann architecture, so that implementation on any given machine is straightforward, and executes without any unexpected inefficiencies. On the other hand, the model should be independent of any specific machine to make it as portable as possible. Therefore, its operations should correspond to operations of high level data structures (i.e., stacks, registers, etc.). An implementation model for a given programming language, L, provides a common 'abstract' operational model, or 'abstract machine' where L-programs will be executed. The model should also be verifiable, to ensure that it implements the language correctly This dissertation defines a correct implementation model (i.e. an abstract machine) for PowerFuL, an untyped higher-order functional programming language, which has been enhanced with logic programming capabilities via relative set abstraction. The abstract machine is first defined operationally and then the description is formalized, to verify its correctness. The operational model is a verified implementation model. Unlike other implementation models for functional logic languages, it deals with sets as first-class objects instead of sets of solutions and has an elegant treatment of inequality constraints, acase@tulane.edu
Abstract universal algebra
acase@tulane.edu
Absurd Divinations
acase@tulane.edu
Abundance and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the lower Mississippi and Pearl rivers
Chemical Biomarkers, along with bulk carbon and nitrogen measurements were examined in the lower Mississippi (MR) and Pearl Rivers (PR) (USA) to study seasonal changes in the abundance and composition of organic matter and riverine phytoplankton. Water samples were collected monthly from September 2001 to August 2003. Surveys of spatial variability (225 km downstream in the MR and from Jackson to Stennis Space Center in the PR) in total DOC, DON and amino acids were also conducted in both rivers in June 2003 Higher phytoplankton abundance (dominated by diatoms) was observed in the lower MR than the PR (by chlorophytes), likely the result of decreasing TSS (increased damming in the watershed) and increasing nutrients (enhanced agricultural runoff) over the past few decades. Phytoplankton abundance in the lower MR was high not only in summer low-discharge periods, as observed in the PR, but also during winter and spring, indicating the inputs from reservoirs in primary tributaries Seasonal variations in the abundance and composition of DOM in the PR were highly correlated with water discharge, indicating a coupling between local carbon inputs (soil and wetlands) and regional precipitation events in the PR. Conversely, seasonal variability of bulk composition and chemical biomarkers of DOM in the lower MR was controlled by spatial variability of an integrative signal from watershed inputs and in-situ production from upriver sources. Spatially, very little change in total DOM in the downstream survey of the lower MR, compared to large decreases in the PR, likely suggested that OM has been subject to long-term in-situ processing An increase in the relative importance of phytoplankton biomass in large turbid rivers could have significant effects on the sources, lability of riverine organic matter, and the stoichiometric balance of nutrients delivered to coastal margins. Longer residence time of DOM and POM in large river systems from the drainage basin to the coast is an important difference in the overall processing of organic matter small versus large systems. If we are to better understand the controls of organic matter delivery to the coastal zone from both small and large rivers, sampling strategies need to be adjusted to account for the different scales of hydrologic response time and in-situ processing associated with different residence times, acase@tulane.edu

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